In-Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
Every expectant parent wonders if their babies are normal and healthy. The truth is that all women have a risk of a pregnancy with abnormal chromosomes, particularly if the woman is above 35 years old. In the past, pregnant women above 35 may be tested with chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis for chromosome abnormalities, such as Down Syndrome. However, they will have to make the painful decision to either keep or stop the pregnancy when the babies are found to be abnormal.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)
Also known as Pre-implantation Genetic Screening (PGS) eliminates the dilemma of deciding on pregnancy termination in the event the tested fetus turns out to be abnormal, as only chromosomally normal embryos are replaced into the womb. PGD is highly recommended for women above 35, patients with inherent genetic diseases, recurrent miscarriages and IVF failures, or sexually-related diseases.PGD is done in conjunction with an IVF cycle. With PGD, one or two cells are taken from the embryo on Day 3 or 5, and assessed for chromosomal defects that may lead to miscarriages or genetic disorders. This technique ensures only embryos that are healthy will be selected for transfer into the uterus for implantation, improving the likelihood of a successful pregnancy and the birth of a normal baby.
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
is a process by which eggs (medically known as oocytes) are fertilised by the sperm outside of the body. IVF offers the highest success rates for pregnancy among the various fertility treatments available.
The process includes:
- Stimulating the development of multiple eggs (Ovulation Induction)
- Collection of the oocytes from the ovaries, Oocyte Pick Up (OPU), which is done via the birth canal. Patients are placed under light anaesthesia
- Fertilisation in the embryology lab, where the eggs are fertilised with sperm and allowed to develop in a special culture medium
- Embryo Transfer. The best resulting embryo(s) from the fertilisation process are then placed back into the uterus after 3 or 5 days, where they will hopefully implant and progress on to a successful pregnancy
Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT)
is almost similar to the IVF procedure, where the woman will first be stimulated to produce as many ripe eggs as possible. Once extracted, they will be observed and cultured in a special nutrient. Meanwhile, the man’s sperm will be collected, cleaned and selected. The best sperms will then be placed on the same catheter as the spouse’s eggs. Both eggs and sperm will then be deposited into the woman’s fallopian tubes and allowed to fertilise naturally inside the woman’s body. The process is meant to mimic the natural pregnancy process as much as possible.